Thin-film solar panels, also called flexible solar panels, are made of one or more layers of thin-film material that absorb light and produce electricity. They're made using amorphous silicon thin film, cadmium telluride thin-film, gallium arsenide or copper indium gallium selenide. They're fast and efficient to manufacture, which often makes them a more affordable solar energy option when compared to other solar technologies.
The thin, flexible, and lightweight photovoltaic cells that make up the panel are only around 1 micron thick (0.001 millimeters), which is only a fraction of the thickness of a penny.
This solar technology can be traced back to the 1970s, when Karl Bower pioneered thin-film solar cell research and created the first solar house, called Solar One. However, it would be decades before interest in thin-film cells would grow enough to result in commercial interest. Today, thin-film panels are still limited in availability and are mainly used in commercial and space applications.
When you think of conventional solar panels, you're most likely thinking of monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon solar panels. This is because thin-film technology is still more widely used in commercial buildings due to efficiency and space requirements for installation.
Thin-film solar panel efficiency varies depending on the type of material but can be expected to be between 7% and 18%. Conventional panel efficiencies can reach 25%, but commercially available panels typically range from 18 to 22%
Because of their lower efficiencies, current thin-film systems require more roof space than conventional panels, meaning they won't be suitable for a large portion of homes.
As with any solar technology, thin-film solar panels come with advantages and disadvantages, depending on your needs and goals. Here are some things to consider when deciding whether thin-film solar panels are right for you.
Lower carbon footprint due to less semiconductor material
May contain cadmium - a probable carcinogenic
Easy and inexpensive installation
Lower efficiency than conventional panels
Great for portable applications (RVs, buses, boats)
More roof space needed for same energy capacity
Faster payback time than conventional panels
Shorter lifespan than conventional panels
Thin-film solar panels are still limited in availability, but as solar technologies continue to advance, these panels could take off in popularity.
If you have a larger home or business with adequate roof space, thin-film panels may be the most efficient and effective way to achieve your carbon footprint reduction goals and save money on energy costs. They may also be an adequate energy solution for portable use on things like RVs, buses or boat rooftops.
There are always things to consider before buying solar panels, and your energy needs are only one of those. Think about what your goals are for solar panels and then weigh your options accordingly.